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Most of us have only ever seen kidneys in a frying pan. The waste and excess water that they filter out forms urine. So, the kidneys will actually hold on to the extra volume. If you pee at all, can you make sure it goes in there? So, it looks a bit like chalk,feels a bit like chalk as well. That smaller one might be able to get out of the kidney along the normal route. And don't forget that fruit and veg have got a lot of fluid in as well. As well as looking after her two young children, she also helps run the familybuilding business which can be stressful. It's in the family and it's concerning me because I've seen how my dad's lifestyle has changed over the years, and the way he's had to do things. Dr Alice Roberts My blood pressure's gone up quite a bit. I'll like to purchase it or download it if it's available. But Grainne's about to come and see some kidneys up close in the lab. The one that's drinking pure water should pee more because his blood is diluted and so the kidneys will notice that and work to get rid of the extra fluid. A kilogram and a half lost in sweat, means I'm going to give them a litre and a half of fluid. It might taste a little bit salty, but I've put some lemon squash in there as well. We'll see the results of our re-hydration experiment in just a moment. Strawberries, peaches, oranges and tomatoes are almost 90% water. Grainne You can be dealing with a vomiting child and having to answer the phone and try and be professional which I try and do, to the best of my ability. And purely, his diabetes I would imagine, is linked to the wayhe's been living. 115 is as the heart actually pumps out the blood,and the 87 is between heartbeats. And the time to worry is if it's more than 140 over 90. And you can see, coming out of the kidney is a tube which transports the urin down to the bladder. Mum of two, Grainne O'Neil has a family history of diabetes which isn't caused by the kidneys, but has a major impact on them. The kidneys are constantly working to balance the fluids in our body. But it seems you can re-hydrate quicker by tricking the kidneys. Jack, you had the one-and-a-half litres of plain water, didn't you? In other words, obviously drinking water is fantastic. But Jack, who drank just plain water,has actually weed out 500ml. So, putting a pinch of salt in has meant that his body has conserved more of the fluid that he's taken on board. Dr Alice Roberts I don't really know if I can do this. Grainne's decided to tackle her health issues head on and her first step is to try to lose weight. So, if I were to eat a meal rich in sugar, then my pancreas should start producing insulin to help to bring that blood glucose down. Just a drop of blood is needed on the reactive strip and within seconds, it gives a reading. So, that's sort of the lower end of the normal range. It also gives me a bit of a rest from eating as well. As part of this experiment, I need to test my blood sugar every few minutes and record the results on a graph. If you remember, there's quite a lot of glucose in my blood at the moment. But if my kidneys are working properly, there shouldn't actually be any glucose at all in my urine. Dr John Forsythe The artery is a significant problem and I'm still not sure that this transplant is doable yet. The surgeons guide the instrument using the overhead monitors. Dr Alice Roberts It will be a few weeks before June knows just how successful the transplant's been. I'll be testing just how the lungs perform under extreme pressure.
Armed with the information, she finally plucks up the courage to take a diabetes test.Only use this website for information related to the ERA-EDTA. In this episode, Alice meets party girl and mum of two Grainne, who, at nearly 40 and with a family history of diabetes, is stressing her kidneys.But if we're talking about how much volume the kidneys filterin a lifetime, then that's lots more. But they're very similar to human kidneys and you'll notice immediately the similarity between this and this model over here which is the human urinary system. They sit there at the back ofyour abdomen, working away,making sure that all of the fluid in your body, is it exactly the right composition for your cells to carry onworking properly. So, the bottom part of the kidney hangs down below it. His kidneys have done their job andhung on to the fluid in his body. It's if your blood pressure stays high that it becomes a problem. And of course, we're also talking about another organ as well now. But I still want to see what's going on with my blood glucose levels. 45-year-old June Inglis from Aberdeen couldn't have prevented her diabetes. June It's still a big shock to finally hear the words, "You've got end stage renal failure."Dr Alice Roberts Three out of ten people with diabetes go on to develop kidney problems. Unless the surgeon can find another vessel to clamp, the transplant won't go ahead today and there'll be no second chance. And as for me, well I've pushed my blood pressure to the limit, and my blood sugar as well.Equivalent to nearly a quarter of an hour's worth of water flowing over this dam,if I live to be 80. They also make sure there's the right volume of fluid in your body and they also get rid of waste as well. And you can see here, I've drawn the renal artery bringing blood to the kidney, and the renal vein carrying it away again. So, the urine is being formed in the substance of the kidney and then it collects into this white area here, and then that leads off into the ureter which is the tube that takes the urine into the bladder. I would have thought logically that plain water would be the best thing to re-hydrate the body after exercise. This is really interesting 'cause although we've only got three people doing this experiment, the results are bearing out with what the larger studies show. Interestingly,as soon as Rosie's back in her box, my blood pressure comes back down again. We're talking about the pancreas because pancreas produces insulin that brings down blood glucose. Not the healthiest of breakfasts, but the cake and glucose drink will get sugar into my blood stream fast. I think it might be time to test my blood sugar again. In just 10 minutes, lots of sugar from this food and drink has got into my blood. and with her kidneys failing, June's best option is a kidney transplant. The other surgeons have startedthe donor operation and want to know what's happening. Dr Alice Roberts In the other theatre, Lorraine's kidney is being removed by keyhole surgery. You can see the kidney turning back into...a nice pink colour again. I'm not going to be going near another spider in a while and although the cakes were lovely, I'm going to opt for something a little more healthy. I'll find out what happens to my lungs when they're under attack.
What happens to them when they go wrong, and how we can all keep themworking better for longer. I'll test my own responses to a sugar rush and other things. Dr Alice Roberts Each class finishes with a strenuous 45-minute workout. Losing weight will make her chances of developing diabetes much lower. Grainne The thing is, you know, if you only stop going for a couple of weeks, then you have a problem 'cause everything starts to tighten up again, you're not as loose you were and so on. And there are 750,000 people walking around with diabetes without knowing it. But there are a number of warning signs that you can look out for which might tell you that you've got diabetes. She..wouldn't be natural if she didn't feel scared. But there's a serious problem finding a usable artery. Dr John Forsythe The artery is like the old-fashioned clay pipe. Imagine if you clamp that, it's a rigid vessel and it'll actually fracture or break. Dr Alice Roberts And she's taking steps to make sure it stays that way. So, I've had to promise her that I will have the occasional glass of red wineand certainly, once the kidney started to function, I'm sure that's what was coming out, it was red wine!