Dating the writing time
Pictures, similarly, may represent events but do not represent language and hence are not a form of writing.But the boundary between pictures and writing becomes less clear when pictures are used conventionally to convey particular meanings.Both speaking and writing depend upon the underlying structures of language.Consequently, writing cannot ordinarily be read by someone not familiar with the linguistic structure underlying the oral form of the language.Indeed, the history of writing is in part a matter of the discovery and representation of these structural levels of spoken language in the attempt to construct an efficient, general, and economical writing system capable of serving a range of socially valuable functions.Literacy is a matter of competence with a writing system and with the specialized functions that written language serves in a particular society.Writing is merely one, albeit the most important, means of communicating by visible signs.Gestures—such as a raised hand for greeting or a wink for intimate agreement—are visible signs, but they are not writing in that they do not transcribe a linguistic form.
The plaque on the spacecraft can be read as a greeting only if the reader already knows how to express a human greeting symbolically.
The basic unit of the meaning system is called a and plurality.
Grammatically related words make up clauses that express larger units of meaning.
communication by means of a set of visible marks that are related, by convention, to some particular structural level of language.
This definition highlights the fact that writing is in principle the representation of language rather than a direct representation of thought and the fact that spoken language has a number of levels of structure, including sentences, words, syllables, and phonemes (the smallest units of speech used to distinguish one word or morpheme from another), any one of which a writing system can “map onto” or represent.
The inverted horse and rider expressed the message that horses and riders should avoid the trail.